References and Downloads


0 Bolger C, Bojanic S, Sheahan N, et al.  Dominant frequency content of ocular microtremor from normal subjects, Vision Research: Volume 39, Issue 11, June 1999, Pages 1911–1915
1 Bolger C, Bojanic S, Sheahan N, et al.  Effect of Age on Ocular Microtremor Activity, Journal of Gerontology: 2001, Vol. 56A, No. 6, M386-M390.
2 Bolger C.  Ocular Microtremor: Reliability of Measurement, Physiological Variation and Neurogenic Origin [PhD thesis]. Dublin: Trinity College Dublin, 1994.
3 Benji H and HG Thomas.  Three Electronic Methods for Recording Ocular Tremor.  Med Biol Eng 1968;6:171-178.
4 Alder FH and F Fliegelman.  The Influence of Fixation on the Visual Acuity.  Arch Ophthal 1934;12:475-483.
5 Ryle JP, Al-Kalbani M Gopinathan U et al.  Speckle interferometric sensor to measure low-amplitude high frequency Ocular Microtremor (OMT).  Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization XII, edited by R. John Koshel, G. Groot Gregory, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7429, 74290J · © 2009.

Anesthesia & Sedation

6 Bojanic S, Simpson T and C Bolger.  Ocular Microtremor:  A Tool for Measuring Depth of Anaesthesia?  Br J Anaesth 2001; 86:519-22.
7 Heaney M, Kevin L, Manara A et al.  Ocular Microtremor During General Anesthesia: Results of a Multicenter Trial Using Automated Signal Analysis.  Anesth Analg 2004;99:775-80.
8 Kevin LG, Cunningham AF and C Bolger.  Comparison of Ocular Microtremor and Bispectral Index During Sevoflurane Anaesthesia.  Br J Anaesth 2002;89:551-555.
9 Kaskinoro K, Maksimow A, Langsjo J et al.  Wide Inter-individual Variability of Bispectral Index and Spectral Entropy at Loss of Consciousness during Increasing Concentrations of Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, and Sevoflurane.  British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2011;107 (4): 573-80.
10 Bruhn J, Myles PS, Sneyd R and M Struys.  Depth of Anaesthesia Monitoring:  What’s Available, What’s Validated and What’s Next?  Br J Anaesth (2006) 97 (1):85-94.

ICU Sedation & Delirium

11 Delirium in the ICU: Prevention and Treatment.  Presentation at the Society of Critical Care Medicine’s 33rd and 34th Critical Care Congresses, 2005.
12 Stoelting RK and FJ Overdyk.  Essential Monitoring Strategies to Detect Clinically Significant Drug- Induced Respiration Depression in the Postoperative Period Conclusions and Recommendations.  2010 Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation.
13 Rowe K and S Fletcher.  Sedation in the Intensive Care Unit.  Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain, 2008;8(2):50-55.
14 Fuchs EM and K Von Rueden.  Sedation Management in the Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patient.  AACN Advanced Critical Care 2008;19(4):421-432.
15 Jackson DL, Proudfoot CW, Cann KF and TS Walsh.  The Incidence of Sub-Optimal Sedation in the ICU:  A Systematic Review.  Critical Care 2009, 13:R204.
16 Jackson DL, Proudfoot CW, Cann KF and TS Walsh.  A Systematic Review of the Impact of Sedation Practice in the ICU on Resource Use, Costs and Patient Safety. Critical Care 2010, 14:R59.
17 Gill KV, Voils SA, Chenault GA, and GM Brophy.  Perceived Versus Actual Sedation Practices in Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.  Ann Pharmacother, 2012 46:1331-1339.
18 Tanios MA, de Wit M, Epstein SK et al.  Perceived Barriers to the Use of Sedation Protocols and Daily Sedation Interruption: A Multidisciplinary Survey. Journal of Critical Care (2009) 24, 66–73.
19 Brush DR and JP Kress.  Sedation and Analgesia for the Mechanically Ventilated Patient.  Clin Chest Med 30 (2009) 131–141.
20 Ely EW, Truman B, Shintani A et al.  Monitoring Sedation Status Over Time in ICU Patients.  JAMA, 2003, Vol 289, No. 22: 2983-2991.
21 Grap MJ, Munro CL, Wetzel PA et al. Sedation in Adults Receiving Machanical Ventilation: Physiological and Comfort Outcomes.  American Journal of Critical Care, May 2012, Volume 21, No. 3:e53-e63.
22 Sessler C and W Wilhelm.  Analgesia and Sedation in the Intensive Care Unit: An Overview of the Issues.  Critical Care 2008, 12(Suppl 3):s1.
23 Strom T, Martinussen T and P Toft.  A Protocol of No Sedation for Critically Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: A Randomised Trial.  The Lancet, 2010;375(9713):475-480.
24 Ogundele O and S Yende.  Pushing the Envelope to Reduce Sedation in Critically Ill Patients.  Critical Care 2010;14:339.
25 Payen J, Chanques G, Mantz J et al. Current Practices in Sedation and Analgesia for Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients. Anesthesiology 2007; 106:687–95.
26 Brook AD, Ahrens TS, Schaiff R et al. Effect of a nursing implemented sedation protocol on the duration of mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 1999 Dec;27:2609–15.
27 Shehabi Y, Bellomo R, Reade M et al.  Early Intensive Care Sedation Predicts Long-Term Mortality in Ventilated Critically Ill Patients.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2012;vol 186 no 8:724-731.
28 Morgan, Rhonda.  Overview of Sedation in Intensive Care.  Nurse Training Program:  Sedation in the Intensive Care Setting.  McMahon Publishing Group, 2007.
29 Sessler CN, Grap MJ, Ramsay MA.  Evaluating and Monitoring Analgesia and Sedation in the Intensive Care Unit.  Crit Care 2008;12(Suppl3):s2.
30 WD Schweickert and JP Kress.  Strategies to Optimize Analgesia and Sedation.  Critical Care 2008, 12(Suppl 3):S6.
31 Zimmerman JE, Kramer AA, McNair et al.  Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay: Benchmarking Based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV.  Crit Care Med 2006, Vol 34, No. 10:2517-2529.
32 Girard TD, Pandharipande PP and EW Ely.  Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit.  Critical Care 2008,12(Suppl 3):S3.
33 Balas MC, Vasilevskis EE, Burke WJ et al.  Critical Care Nurses’ Role in Implementing the “ABCDE Bundle” into Practice.  Critical Care Nurse, 2012;32(2):35-47.
34 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Report to Congress.  The Critical Care Workforce: A Study of the Supply and Demand for Critical Care Physicians, May 2006


35 Bolger C, Bojanic S, Sheahan N et al.  Ocular Microtremor in Patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;66:528-531.
36 Bolger C, Bojanic S, Sheahan N et al.  Ocular Microtremor (OMT):  A New Neurophysiological Approach to Multiple Sclerosis.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:639-642.
37 Bojanic S and C Bolger.  Ocular Microtremor (OMT): A Useful Indicator of Outcome in Coma? British Journal of Anesthesia (82) 5: 785P (1999) Proceedings of The Intensive Care Society
38 Bolger C. Presentation to Royal College of Surgeons Ireland Bolger RCSI; Coma, Brain Death & MS
39 Bolger C, Bojanic S, Phillips J. et al.  Ocular Microtremor in Brain Stem Death.  Neurosurgery 1999;44-6:1201-1206.
40 Coakley D and , JG Thomas.  The ocular microtremor record as a potential procedure for establishing brain death.  Journal of the Neurological Sciences 1977; vol 31 (2):199-205.


41 Coakley D, Williams R and J Morris.  Minute eye movement during sleep. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1979 Aug;47(2):126-31.
42 Coakley D. The ocular microtremor record during sleep. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1976;96(4):436-8.